KAMPALA

UGANDA

Africa

CONTINENT

Ugandan Shilling

CURRENCY

Swahili1

LANGUAGE

In 2016, the city of Kampala was selected by United Nations Habitat and the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy to participate in a pilot project to develop the initial prototypes of a global municipal database that could present the first integrated view of urban planning and fiscal information for a global network of cities. The project was inspired by the realization that the fiscal health of municipalities, and the alignment of urban planning and public finance functions, are important to enabling the success of city leaders facing the challenges of sustainable urbanization.

The principal unit of analysis for this project is the city. An original data gathering effort documented the framework of fiscal governance for the city, its demographic profile, and then incorporated data on the quantity and quality of urban expansion occurring across the city’s jurisdiction, urban layouts, and key land-use planning indicators.  External sources were also leveraged to incorporate a national macro-level context for the intergovernmental framework that each city operates in. 

By starting with the city as the unit of analysis, the project is designed to fill an important vacuum and improve the micro-level understanding of a city’s framework of public finance and urban planning. Expanding access and transparency to this information will enable the appraisal of the strengths or weaknesses in the trajectory of a city, and help national, subnational, and local governments identify interventions that can improve the performance of core municipal systems. The initial presentation of select components being developed for this integrated approach for the city of Kampala appear below.

Kampala Summary

Kampala is the capital of the country of Uganda. The Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA), instituted and governed by the KCCA Act of 2010, is the governing body of the city of Kampala and administers the city on behalf of the central government subject to the noted Act. The city is divided into five urban divisions, being Central, Kawempe, Makindye, Lubaga and Nakawa. There are however several municipalities surrounding Kampala that depend on their proximity to Kampala as the economic hub of Uganda for their livelihood. In 2014, it is estimated that Kampala had around 1.8 million residents, with an additional estimated 3.5 million people entering the city for employment every day - most of them absorbed in informal sector employment.

The KCCA was instituted as part of broader institutional reform in Uganda. The KCCA oversees lower tiers of government: division urban councils, ward urban councils, village urban councils, and street committees. The structure of local government in Uganda depends on the urban/rural classification of the particular local government. In urban areas, there are city, municipal, division/town, ward and cell councils. In rural settings, local government comprises district councils, counties (which are administrative units without a council), sub-county councils, parish councils and village councils.

The fiscal expenditure responsibilities of the KCCA are outlined in Schedule 3 to the KCCA Act of 2010. Additional legislative provisions are also outlined by the Local Government Act of 1997 (as amended in 2010 and 2015). Management of municipal finances are regulated by the Public Finance Management Act of 1999 (as amended in 2010 and 2015).

The new KCCA structure has seen remarkable increases in own-source revenue since 2011. Transfers from national government (expected to persist around 60% of total revenue in the foreseeable future) are tightly controlled by the National Treasury. Claims by service providers, for example, are directly settled by the Treasury against grant amounts by directly paying the service provider rather than making cash transfers to the KCCA. International donor aid is widely used to support many significant projects, including for example projects to improve the overall infrastructure in Kampala City, which will among others deliver an updated cadaster.

Over the past few decades in Kampala, the urban extent and its population has been growing. Urban extent is the combined built-up area and open space associated with a city (not limited to its administrative boundary). From 1988 to 2015, the urban extent of Kampala has grown by over 34,000 hectares and the population in the urban extent has increased over 315%.

3,017,000

Population in the Urban Extent2

18,900 Hectares

City Area3

51,321 Hectares

Urban Extent4


Expenditure Mandates Framework

A qualitative framework for analyzing the expenditure responsibilities that have been devolved to the city from higher levels of government is presented here. Expenditure responsibilities by function are the core indicators of this framework. This is intended to enable an analysis regarding the suitability of the city’s fiscal decentralization framework to generate the necessary resources to finance the city’s service and expenditure needs. For expanded information on these indicators and the role they play in city analysis generally in the context of this project, read our Data Governance, Methodology & Sources Document.


Revenue & Resource Mobilization Fiscal Framework

A qualitative framework for analyzing how cities facing the challenge of providing public goods, citizen services, and maintaining public infrastructure can raise and diversify revenues and capital to manage their obligations is presented here. Own-source revenues, intergovernmental transfers, borrowing authority, select indicators of land value capture, and others, are at the core of this framework. For expanded information on these indicators and the role they play in city analysis generally in the context of this project, read our Data Governance, Methodology & Sources Document.


Urbanization Indicators Framework

A framework for analyzing the changing spatial character of urbanization, for the city and its surrounding jurisdiction, are presented here. The focus is on the city’s geographic urban extent – meaning the characteristics that are present within the relatively contiguous built-up areas (and their open spaces) extending over the formal administrative boundaries of the city into areas one might associate with a metropolitan area. Population, density, and other indicators are at the core of this framework. For expanded information on the indicators in this diagram from the Atlas of Urban Expansion, read our Data Governance, Methodology & Sources Document.


Urban Spatial Structure Indicators

A selection of indicators that can support leaders planning for future urbanization are presented here. The indicators enable an analysis of urban sprawl, city compactness, land use fragmentation, and other aspects of urbanization. Additional indicators (land ownership patterns, land-use planning practice indicators, prices, key attributes of different types of residential plots, houses, and apartments, among others) are also part of the framework. For expanded information on these indicators and the other Urbanization and Urban Planning indicators that appear in this diagram from the Atlas of Urban Expansion, read our Data Governance, Methodology & Sources Document.

1 English and Swahili are common languages for Kampala.
2 Data is presented for 2015. Source: Atlas of Urban Expansion
Data is presented for 2017.
4 Data is presented for 2015. Source: Atlas of Urban Expansion
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